Honour School of Modern Languages

A

  • 1. The subjects of examination in the Honour School of Modern Languages shall be the French, German, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Russian, Medieval and Modern Greek, Czech (with Slovak),1 and Celtic1 languages and the literatures associated with them[For students starting before MT 2018: , and Linguistics].  Save in the case of the subjects Czech (with Slovak) and Celtic, which may be offered only with another of the languages, a candidate may offer one or two languages [For students starting before MT 2018: or one language and Linguistics]. The standard of competence required of a candidate shall be the same in any language which they offer whether it be their sole language or one of two languages.

  • 2. Every candidate shall be required to show, in the case of any language which they offer, a competent knowledge:

    • (1) of the language as it is spoken and written at the present day, such knowledge to be tested by oral and written examination;

    • (2) of at least one specified period in its literature;

    • (3) of the history, thought, and civilization of the country necessary for the understanding of the language and literature.

  • 3. A candidate offering one language shall be required to show a competent philological knowledge of the language they are offering. A candidate offering two languages shall be permitted to offer a paper or papers on philological topics.

  • [For students starting before MT 2018: 4. Candidates offering the subject Linguistics shall be required to show a competent knowledge of analytical techniques and problems in descriptive and theoretical linguistics and the application of these to the language they are offering. ]

  • [For students starting before MT 2018: 5.] [For students starting from MT 2018: 4.] No candidate shall be admitted to examination in this School unless he or she has either passed or been exempted from the First Public Examination.

  • [For students starting before MT 2018: 6.] [For students starting from MT 2018: 5.] The examiners shall indicate in the lists issued by them the subject or subjects offered by each candidate obtaining honours or satisfying the examiners under the appropriate regulation. In drawing up the Class List the examiners shall satisfy themselves that each candidate has shown an appropriate level of competence both in literature (and linguistic studies where this applies) and in language.

  • [For students starting before MT 2018: 7.] [For students starting from MT 2018: 6.] The board of the faculty shall by notice from time to time make regulations concerning the examination; and shall have power in respect of each subject included in the examination:

    • (1) to determine, within the limits of this decree, the form and content of the individual papers of the examination, and

    • (2) to issue a list of Special Subjects, prescribing books or authorities where they think it desirable. Such books or authorities may be in other languages than that to which the Special Subject is related. A Special Subject may be concerned with a language or literature not specified in clause 1 of this Regulation.

  • [For students starting before MT 2018: 8.] [For students starting from MT 2018: 7.] A candidate whose name has been placed in the Class List upon the result of the examination in any one or more of the subjects included in the examination shall be permitted to offer themselves for examination in any of the other subjects so included at the examination in either the next year or the next year but one, provided that no such candidate shall offer any of the languages or subjects already offered by them in the Honour School of Modern Languages or in the Honour Schools of History and Modern Languages, Philosophy and Modern Languages, Classics and Modern Languages, or English and Modern Languages, or European and Middle Eastern Languages, [For students starting from MT 2018: or Modern Languages and Linguistics], and provided always that they have not exceeded six terms from the date on which they first obtained Honours in a Final Honour School.

B

Candidates will be examined in accordance with the examination regulations set out below.

They will also be required to spend, after their matriculation, a year of residence in an appropriate country or countries, and to provide on their entry form for the examination a certificate that they have done this, signed by the Head or by a tutor of their society. Candidates wishing to be dispensed from the requirement to undertake a year of residence abroad must apply in writing to the Chair of the Medieval and Modern Languages Board, 41 Wellington Square, Oxford, OX1 2JF, stating their reasons for requesting dispensation and enclosing a letter of support from their society.

Candidates [For students starting from MT 2018: should during this year abroad undertake a programme of activity acceptable to their college or society.  They] will [For students starting from MT 2018: also] be expected to carry out during this [For students starting from MT 2018: period] [For students starting before MT 2018: year abroad] such[For students starting from MT 2018: academic] work as their society may require. [For students starting before MT 2018:  It is strongly recommended that candidates should apply through the Central Bureau for Educational Visits and Exchanges for an Assistantship, where these are available, and should accept one if offered. Candidates who are not able to obtain an Assistantship should during their year abroad follow a course or courses in an institution or institutions approved by their society, or should spend their time in such other circumstances as are acceptable to their society.]  Candidates will agree with their College Tutor in advance of their year abroad an independent course of study to be followed during that period.

It is strongly recommended that candidates offering two languages who spend their year abroad in a country or countries of one of the languages only should in addition spend between their matriculation and examination at least four weeks in a country of the other language.

[For students starting before MT 2018: Candidates may offer either one or two languages. The standard of competence shall be as high for candidates who offer two languages as for those who offer only one. A candidate offering one language may also offer Linguistics. The papers and choices of options available to candidates for each of the two courses will be the same.

Candidates may additionally offer an Extended Essay, good performance in which will be taken into account in allocating all classes.]

The following is the general scheme of papers in Modern Languages:

I, II, III Language papers

IV, V Linguistic Studies

VI, VII, VIII Period of Literature or Period Topics

IX Early Texts

X, XI Prescribed Authors (German XI: Early Modern Texts or Goethe)

XII Special Subjects

XIII General Linguistics [For students starting from MT 2018: (as specified for Paper A in the Special Regulations for Linguistics in all Honour Schools including Linguistics)]

XIV Extended Essay

Candidates must take one of the schedules of papers listed in 1 below, subject to the general and specific conditions listed in 2, and the special regulations concerning Paper XII Special Subjects listed in 3.

1. Combinations of Papers

  • I. A candidate who offers two languages must take the written papers listed below, and oral examinations in both languages:

    • Five papers in language A

      • Two language papers I, II(A+B)

      • One of VI, VII, VIII

      • Two of IV, V, IX, X, XI, XII

    • Four papers in language B

      • Two language papers I, II(A+B)

      • One of VI, VII, VIII

      • One of IV, V, IX, X, XI, XII

    • Optionally, XIV Extended Essay

  • II. A candidate who offers one language only must take the written papers listed below, and the oral examination in the language:

  • (a) French:

    • Three language papers I, II(A+B), III

    • One of VI, VII, VIII

    • Five of IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII, XIII

    • Optionally, XIV Extended Essay

  • (b) Spanish:

    • Three language papers I, II(A+B), III

    • Paper IX

    • Two of VI, VII, VIII, XIII

    • Three of IV, V, X, XI, XII, XII (Modern Galician or Modern Catalan) of which at least one must be IV or V

    • Optionally, XIV Extended Essay

  • (c) All other languages:

    • Three language papers I, II(A+B), III

    • Paper IX

    • Two of VI, VII, VIII, XIII

    • Three of IV, V, X, XI, XII, of which at least one must be IV or V

    • Optionally, XIV Extended Essay

  • [For students starting before MT 2018: III. Candidates offering one language and Linguistics must take eight papers as listed below, and the oral examination in the language.

    • Three papers in the language:

      • Two language papers I, II(A+B)

      • One of VI, VII, VIII

    • Four papers in Linguistics:

      • IV and V (in the language)

      • XII (drawn from Special Subjects bearing the Linguistics identifier)

      • XIII

    • One paper, from IX, X, XI, or XII (whether in the language or Linguistics)

    • Optionally, XIV Extended Essay

  • Candidates must avoid substantial overlap between Paper XII Special Subjects and other Linguistics Papers.]

  • [For students starting before MT 2018: IV.] [For students starting from MT 2018: III.] Candidates offering one language with Polish must offer:

    • Three papers in Polish: II(A+B), IV or V, VIII

    • Six papers in the other language, as specified below

    • Oral examination in the other language

    • Optionally, XIV Extended Essay

  • In French

    • Two language papers I, II(A+B)

    • One of VI,VII,VIII

    • Three of IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII, XIII

  • In German

    • Two language papers I, II(A+B)

    • One of VI, VII, VIII, XIII

    • Three of IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII (provided that no more than two of IV, V, IX are taken)

  • In Italian

    • Two language papers I, II(A+B)

    • One of VI, VII, VIII

    • One of IV, V

    • Paper IX

    • One of IV or V, VI, VII, VIII, X, XI, XII, XIII

  • In Spanish

    • Two language papers I, II(A+B)

    • One of VI, VII, VIII, XIII

    • Paper IX

    • Two of IV or V, VI, VII, VIII, X, XI, XII, XII (Modern Galician or Modern Catalan)

  • In Russian

    • Two language papers I, II(A+B)

    • One of VII, VIII

    • Paper IX

    • Two of IV or V, VI, VII, VIII, X, XI, XII, XIII

  • In Portuguese

    • Two language papers I, II(A+B)

    • One of Papers VI, VII, VIII

    • Three of IV or V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII

  • In Medieval and Modern Greek

    • Two language papers I, II(A+B)

    • Two of VI, VII, VIII, XIII

    • Two of IX, X, XI, XII

Examination answers must be written in English, except when directions are given to the contrary.

Candidates will be required to attend for an oral examination in each language they offer. A candidate failing to appear for the oral examination, without good cause shown, will be deemed to have withdrawn from the whole examination.

In the oral examination a candidate will be required to show in each language he offers competence in the following:

  • (i) Comprehension of a passage or passages of text;

  • (ii) A short discourse;

  • (iii) Conversation. Reading aloud may be required of candidates as a further test of their pronunciation.

[For students starting from MT 2018: Candidates may additionally offer an Extended Essay, good performance in which will be taken into account in allocating all classes.]

2. Special Provisions

  • i. All candidates offering Italian must offer at least one of IV, V, IX in Italian

  • ii. A candidate offering two languages is required to offer, in one language,

  • either at least one of papers IV, V

  • or at least one pre-Modern paper as designated below:

    • French VI, VII, IX, X

      German VI, VII, IX, XI(A)

      Italian VI, VII, IX, X

      Spanish VI, VII, IX, X

      Portuguese VI, VII, IX, X

      Russian VI, VII, IX

      Medieval and Modern Greek VI, VII, IX, X

      Celtic VI, IX, X

      Czech IX

    • or one Paper XII designated as pre-Modern.

Details of Paper XII Special Subjects which have been designated as pre-Modern will be provided in the list of Special Subjects published by the Faculty by the beginning of the fifth week of the Trinity Term one year before the examination.

3. Paper XII Special Subjects

Candidates may offer only one Paper XII, with the following exceptions:

  • [For students starting before MT 2018: (a)] Candidates offering Spanish as a sole language or as one of two languages may offer two Paper XII Special Subjects in total, provided that one is either Modern Catalan or Modern Galician;

  • [For students starting before MT 2018: (b) Candidates offering Linguistics may offer either one or two Paper XII Special Subjects. Where one Special Subject is offered, it must bear the appropriate Linguistics identifier. Where two Special Subjects are offered, one must bear the appropriate Linguistics identifier. ]

Candidates offering a Paper XII Special Subject in the second of two languages (Language B) may choose only a Special Subject bearing the appropriate language identifier.

Candidates offering Spanish as a sole language or in combination with any language other than Portuguese may offer one of the following papers in Portuguese as a Paper XII Special Subject: Paper X, Paper XI, half of the period covered in Paper VII or Paper VIII.

[For students starting from MT 2018: Instead of a Special Subject from the list for the year concerned, a candidate offering a sole language in the Honour School of Modern Languages may offer any one of papers B1-B6 of the Honour School of Modern Languages and Linguistics, subject to the agreement of the Director of Studies of the Faculty of Linguistics, Philology and Phonetics. This option is not available to candidates offering two languages or to candidates for any joint school involving Modern Languages other than the Honour School of Modern Languages and Linguistics.]

4. Detailed specifications of papers I to XIV

I, II, III Language Papers

  • French

    • I Essay in French

      IIA Translation from Modern French

      IIB Translation into Modern French

      III Translation from pre-Modern French

  • German

    • I Translation into German and Essay in German

      IIA Translation from Modern German

      IIB Translation from Modern German

      III Translation from pre-Modern German

  • Italian

    • I Essay in Italian

      IIA Translation from Italian

      IIB Translation into Italian

      III Translation from pre-Modern Italian

  • Spanish

    • I Prose translation from English into Spanish and an essay in Spanish

      IIA Translation from Modern Spanish

      IIB Translation from Modern Spanish

      III Prose translation from English into Spanish and a translation from Spanish into English (medieval or golden age)

  • Portuguese

    • I Prose composition and essay

      IIA Translation from Modern Portuguese (European)

      IIB Translation from Modern Portuguese (Brazilian)

      III (A) Translation from pre-Modern Portuguese and (B) a Year Abroad Essay

  • Russian

    • I Translation into Russian and essay in Russian with further specifications

      IIA Translation from Modern Russian

      IIB Translation from Modern Russian

      III Translation from pre-Modern Russian with further specifications

  • Czech (with Slovak)

    • I Translation into Czech or Slovak and essay in Czech or Slovak

      IIA Translation from Modern Czech

      IIB Translation from Modern Slovak

  • Medieval and Modern Greek

    • I Translation into Modern Greek and essay in Modern Greek

      IIA Translation from Modern Greek

      IIB Translation from Modern Greek

      III Translation of a prose text in kathareuousa into English

  • Polish

    • IIA Translation from Modern Polish

      IIB Translation into Modern Polish

  • Celtic

    • I Translation into Irish or Welsh and essay in Irish or Welsh

      IIA Translation from Modern Irish or Modern Welsh

      IIB Translation from Irish from the period up to 1200 or Welsh from the period up to 1400.

IV. Linguistic Studies I.

French:

The History of the French language up to the mid-twentieth century. [For students starting from MT 2018: Texts for linguistic commentary will be set as specified in the FHS French course handbook.]

[For students starting before MT 2018: The paper will consist of two sections as follows. Candidates must answer questions from both sections.

  • (1) The history of the language (phonetics, phonology, grammar, vocabulary, semantics, sociolinguistics, external history).

  • (2) The description of the language of literary and non-literary texts from past periods. Candidates may confine their answer(s) to one of the following sub-sections:

  • (a) From Latin to Early Old French: Before 1150;

  • (b) Old and Middle French: 1100-1530;

  • (c) Renaissance and Classical French: 1530-1715;

  • (d) Into Modern French: 1715-1940.

Optional passages from texts for linguistic and stylistic commentary will be set for each period. The following are suggested as illustrative texts:

  • (a) Studer and Waters, Historical French Reader, 1, 6, 7, 10, 11, 13.

  • (b) Studer and Waters, Historical French Reader, 20, 26, 34, 40, 41, 45, 46, 47, 65.

Passages for commentary will be selected from the texts listed above.

In (c) and (d) the texts will be selected from appropriate literary and non-literary works.]

German:

The development of the German language from 1170 to the present.  [For students starting from MT 2018: Texts for special study will be specified in the FHS German course handbook.]

[For students starting before MT 2018: Werner der Gärtner, Helmbrecht (Reclam edn.).

Martin Luther, Sendbrief vom Dolmetschen, ed. K. Bischoff, pp. 6/7-28, l. 21/29, l. 22, and pp. 36-57.]

Italian:

The history of the Italian language from the earliest times to the twentieth century.

Spanish:

The history of the Spanish language to 1700. [For students starting before MT 2018: The paper will be divided into three sections, and candidates must answer from two: (a) to 1250; (b) 1250-1500; (c) 1500-1700.]

Portuguese:

The history and structure of the Portuguese language. Candidates will be required to show knowledge of the descriptive analysis of the contemporary language, as used in Portugal and Brazil, and of its historical development.

Russian:

The history of the Russian language. [For students starting from MT 2018: Texts prescribed for linguistic comment and for translation and linguistic comment will be specified in the FHS Russian course handbook.]

  • [For students starting before MT 2018: (1) for linguistic comment:

    • (a) Marginalia to Novgorod service books (V. V. Ivanov et al., Khrestomatiya po istorii russkogo yazyka, Moscow, 1990, pp. 26-7).

      Novgorod birchbark texts, nos. 247, 752, 644, 605, 424, 776, 724, 717, 725, 531, 705, 765, 142, 370, 363, 364, 361, 43, 49, 154 (A. A. Zaliznyak, Drevnenovgorodskii dialekt, Moscow, 2004, pp. 239-40, 249-54, 267-8, 271-2, 307-9, 350-4, 396-7, 415-20, 422-4, 480-1, 536-8, 588-90, 606-7, 614, 651-2, 672-3).

      Vkladnaya Varlaama (Zaliznyak, pp. 458-60).

      Treaty of Alexander Nevsky and Novgorod with the Germans, 1262-3 (S. P. Obnorsky and S. G. Barkhudarov, Khrestomatiya po istorii russkogo yazyka, part 1, 2nd edn., Moscow, 1952, pp. 51-2).

      Novgorod First Chronicle, s.a. 6738-9 (ed. A. N. Nasonov, Novgorodskaya Pervaya letopis' starshego i mladshego izvoda, Moscow-Leningrad, 1950, pp. 69-71).

    • (b) Afanasy Nikitin, Khozhenie za tri morya (Ivanov et al., pp. 322-5).

      Dukhovnaya gramota I. Yu. Gryaznogo (Ivanov et al., pp. 279-80).

      Letter of T. I. Golitsyna to V. V. Golitsyn (S. I. Kotkov et al., Moskovskaya delovaya i bytovaya pis'mennost' XVII veka, Moscow, 1968, p. 20).

      Letters of D. V. Mikhalkov to M. I. Mikhalkova and P. D. Mikhalkov (Kotkov et al ., pp. 39-40 (17b-v), 41 (18b)).

      Letters of U. S. Pazukhina to S. I. Pazukhin and E. Klement'ev to F. M. Chelishchev (S. I. Kotkov and N. P. Pankratova, istochniki po istorii narodno-razgovornogo yazyka XVII-nachala XVIII veka, Moscow, 1964, pp. 169-70, 233).

      Letters of Peter I to Tsaritsa Natal′ya Kirillovna, to F. M. Apraksin, to B. P. Sheremetev (Pis′ma i bumagi Petra Velikago, vol. 1 (1688-1701), St Petersburg, 1887, No. 6, p. 11, No. 14, pp. 15-16; vol. 5 (1707), St Petersburg, 1907, No. 1695, pp. 221-2; vol. 7(i) (1708), St Petersburg, 1918, No. 2186, pp. 35-6).

      Evidence of A. Turcheninov on fire of 29 May 1737 (A. I. Sumkina and S. I. Kotkov, Pamyatniki moskovskoi delovoi pis'mennosti XVIII veka, Moscow, 1981, pp. 159-60).

      Letters of V. B. Golitsyn to Vl. B. Golitsyn, M. D. Kurakina to B. I. Kurakin, M. M. Shcherbatov to D. M. Shcherbatov (Sumkina and Kotkov, pp. 24-6, 49-50 (50), 73-4).

  • (2) for translation and linguistic comment:

    • (a) Colophon to Ostromir Codex (Ivanov et al., pp. 15-16).

      Mstislavova gramota (Ivanov et al., pp. 39-41). Colophon to Mstislav's Gospel Book (Ivanov et al., pp. 49-50).

      Spisok ubytkov novgorodtsev, 1412 (Zaliznyak, pp. 686-692).

      Russkaya Pravda (Ivanov, et al., pp. 67-73).

      Novgorod First Chronicle, s.a. 6633-8, 6675-7, 6700, 6712, 6777-80 (Nasonov, pp. 21-2, 32-3, 40, 46-9, 87-90).

    • (b) Statejnyi spisok G. I. Mikulina (D. S. Likhachev, Puteshestviya russkikh poslov XVI-XVII vv., Moscow – Leningrad, 1954, p. 178, 4th paragraph – p. 181, 2nd paragraph).

      Domostroi (Obnorsky and Barkhudarov, part I, pp. 236-241).

      Ulozhenie Alekseya Mikhailovicha, Chapter 10 (Ivanov et al., pp. 380-1).

      G. Kotoshikhin, O Rossii v tsarstvovanie Alekseya Mikhailovicha, Chapter 4, Section 24, Chapter 13, Sections 1-4 (ed. A. E. Pennington, Oxford, 1980, pp. 65-7, 159-63).

      Stateinyi spisok P. A. Tolstogo (Obnorsky and Barkhudarov, part 2:1, 1949, pp. 72-5).

      Candidates will be required to show knowledge either of the texts listed under (1) (a)-(b), of those listed under (1) (a) and (2) (a), or of those listed under (1) (b) and (2) (b).

]Medieval and Modern Greek:

The History of Modern Greek Language. The paper will study the development of Greek language from Koine to Standard Modern Greek. A discussion of the Language Debate will be included in this paper.

Czech (with Slovak):

The history of Czech and Slovak. [For students starting from MT 2018: Texts prescribed for passages for commentary and translation will be specified in the FHS Czech course handbook.] [For students starting before MT 2018: Passages for commentary and translation will be taken from Porák, Chrestomatie k vývoji českého jazyka (1979), pp. 31-40, 54-64, 72-88, 115-18, 126-31, 383-7. Candidates will be required to write one translation, one commentary, and two essay-type questions.]

Polish:

The History of the Polish Language.

Celtic:

Comparative and Historic Celtic Linguistics. Passages will be set for linguistic commentary on one of (a) The history of Welsh or of Irish and Scottish Gaelic or (b) Comparative Celtic Linguistics.2

V. Linguistic Studies II.

French:

Modern French.   [For students starting from MT 2018: The descriptive analysis of Modern French, including optional questions on theoretical linguistic issues to be answered with particular reference to French.]  [For students starting before MT 2018: Candidates will be required to show knowledge of the descriptive analysis of the contemporary language, and will have the opportunity of discussing the historical development of the language where this illuminates present-day usage. The paper will contain optional questions on the principles of descriptive linguistics to be answered with particular reference to French.]

German:

Either

  • (1) Old High German [For students starting from MT 2018: .Texts prescribed for study will be specified int he FHS German course handbook.]  [For students starting before MT 2018: , with the following texts prescribed for study: W. Braune, Althochdeutsches Lesebuch (17th edn., by E. A. Ebbinghaus): V Gespräche ; VIII Isidor, cap. iii; XX Tatian, subsections 2, 4, and 7; XXIII Notker, subsections 1 and 13; XXVIII Hildebrandslied; XXIX Wessobrunner Gebet; XXX Muspilli; XXXII Otfrid, subsections 7 (Missus est Gabrihel angelus) and 21 (De die judicii); XXXVI Ludwigslied; XLIII Ezzos Gesang, Strasbourg version only.]

    Or

  • (2) Descriptive analysis of German as spoken and written at the present day (phonetics, phonology, grammar, vocabulary, semantics, style). The paper will contain optional questions on the principles of descriptive linguistics to be answered with particular reference to German.

Italian:

Modern Italian. Candidates will be required to show knowledge of the descriptive analysis of the contemporary language, and will have the opportunity of discussing the historical development of the language where this illuminates present-day usage. The paper will contain optional questions on the principles of descriptive linguistics to be answered with particular reference to Italian.

Spanish:

Modern Spanish. Candidates will be required to show knowledge of the descriptive analysis of the structure of the contemporary language, as used in Spain and in the Americas.

Portuguese:

Varieties of Portuguese. Candidates will be required to apply the principles of descriptive linguistics to the analysis of regional and social varieties of the Portuguese of Portugal, Brazil, and Africa, and to Portuguese-based creoles. This paper will include commentaries on linguistic samples.

Russian:

Either

  • (1) The development of the Church Slavonic language[For students starting from MT 2018: . Texts prescribed for linguistic comment and for translation and linguistic comment will be specified in the FHS Russian course handbook.] [For students starting before MT 2018: , with the following texts prescribed:

    • (a) for linguistic comment:

      Kiev Missal and Euchologium Sinaticum (R. Auty, Handbook of Old Church Slavonic, London, 1968 and subsequent reprints, Pt. ii, Texts and Glossary, passages IV, pp. 52-7, and VI, pp. 64-9).

      Luke x: 25-37 (Auty, passage XIV, pp. 97-106: ed. L. P. Zhukovskaya et al., Aprakos Mstislava Velikogo, Moscow, 1983, p. 131).

      Psalm liv (ed. S. Sever'yanov, Sinaiskaya Psaltyr', Petrograd, 1922, pp. 67-9; ed. E. V. Cheshko et al., Norovskaya psaltyr'. Srednebolgarskaya rukopis' XIV veka, Sofia, 1989, Pt. ii, pp. 387-91; Psaltir s posljedovanjem Ðurd~a Crnojevića 1494, reprinted Cetinje, 1986; the Synodal Bible of 1751 and subsequent editions, e.g. Moscow, 1815, St Petersburg, 1820).

    • (b) for translation and linguistic comment:

      Vita Constantini, xiv-xv, xvii-xviii, Vita Methodii, v-xvii, the Treatise on Letters, the Acrostich Prayer (A. Vaillant, Textes vieux-slaves, Paris, 1968, Pt. i, Textes et glossaire, passages I, pp. 30-3, 37-40, II, pp. 46-55, III, pp. 57-61, IV C. pp. 68-70).

      Povest′ vremennykh let, s.a. 6406 (D. S. Likhachev, Povest′ vremennykh let, part I, Moscow – Leningrad, 1950, pp. 21-23).

      Zhitie sv. Stefana episkopa Permskogo (ed. V. Druzhinin, St Petersburg, 1897, reprinted The Hague, 1959, pp. 69-74).

      V. F. Burstov's Bukvar' (V. V. Ivanov et al., Khrestomatiya po istorii russkogo yazyka, Moscow, 1990, pp. 369-74).

      Candidates will be required to show knowledge of the texts listed under (1) (a) and (1) (b).]

    • Or
  • (2) Descriptive analysis of Russian as spoken and written at the present day (phonetics, phonology, grammar, vocabulary, semantics, style). The paper will contain optional questions on the principles of descriptive linguistics to be answered with particular reference to Russian.

Medieval and Modern Greek:

The structure of the standard language as spoken and written at the present day (phonetics, phonology, grammar, vocabulary, semantics, style). The paper will contain optional questions on the principles of descriptive linguistics to be answered with particular reference to Modern Greek.

Polish:

Descriptive analysis of Polish as spoken and written at the present day.

VI. Topics in the period of literature (French only) or Period of literature (i):

French: to 1530.

German: [For students starting before MT 2017: Medieval German Culture (to 1450): Texts, Contexts, and Issues.] [For students starting from MT 2017: Beginnings of writing to 1550: Texts, Contexts, and Issues.]

Italian: 1220-1430.

Spanish: to 1499.

Portuguese: to 1540.3

Medieval and Modern Greek: Byzantine Greek to 145.3

Celtic: Medieval Irish up to 1600 and Medieval Welsh up to 1500. [Candidates will be able to confine their answers to questions on either Irish or Welsh topics.]

VII. Topics in the period of literature (French only) or Period of literature (ii):

French: 1530-18004

German: [For students starting before MT 2017: Early Modern German Culture (1450-1730): Texts, Contexts, and Issues.] [For students starting from MT 2017: Early Modern German Culture (1500-1800): Texts, Contexts, and Issues.]

Italian: 1430-1635

Spanish: 1543-1695

Portuguese: 1500-16973

Russian: 1100-1700

Medieval and Modern Greek: Medieval Greek to 1669

VIII. Topics in the period of literature (French only) or Period of literature (iii):

French: 1715 to the present.5

German: [For students starting before MT 2017: Modern German Literature (1730 to the present): Texts, Contexts, and Issues.] [For students starting from MT 2017: Modern German Literature (1770 to the present day): Texts, Contexts, and Issues.]

Italian: Modern Italian Literature (1750 to the present) and Cinema

Spanish: The literature of Spain and of Spanish America: 1811 to the present.

Candidates may offer themselves for examination either in the literature of both Spain and Spanish America, or in the literature of Spain only, or in the literature of Spanish America only.

Portuguese: The literature of Portugal and Brazil: 1761 to the present.

Candidates may offer themselves for examination either in the literature of both Portugal and Brazil, or in the literature of Portugal only, or in the literature of Brazil only.

Russian: 1820–present

Medieval and Modern Greek: Modern Greek, 1821 to the present.

Czech (with Slovak): Czech and Slovak literature, 1774 to the present.

Polish: Polish literature from the late 18th century to the 20th century.

Candidates will be required to answer three questions.

5IX.  Medieval Prescribed Texts (excluding Russian) or Enlightenment Texts (Russian only):

[For students starting from MT 2018: Texts for study will be specified in the relevant modern language’s FHS course handbook.

French

German

Italian

Spanish

Portuguese

Russian

Medieval and Modern Greek: Candidates may choose one of either A or B:6

  • A: Byzantine Texts

  • B: Medieval vernacular texts

Celtic]

[For students starting before MT 2018: French:

In French paper IX, the commentary section of the paper will include compulsory passages for translation.

La Chanson de Roland, ed. Whitehead (Blackwell).

Béroul, The Romance of Tristran, ed. Ewert (Blackwell).

Villon, Œuvres, ed. Longnon–Foulet, 4th edn., with a special study of Le Testament, 1-909, 1660-end, and Poésies Diverses IX-XVI.

Candidates will be required to translate from one or more passages set for comment.

German:

Das Nibelungenlied, ed. K. Bartsch et al. (Reclam 1997), avent. 1, 14-17, 23-30, 36-9.

Wolfram von Eschenbach, Parzival, books 3, 5, and 9.

Heinrich von Morungen, Lieder, ed. H. Tervooren (Reclam 1986)

Das Osterspiel von Muri and Das Innsbrucker Osterspiel

Italian:

Dante, La divina commedia, with a special study of two of the three Cantiche.

Spanish:

Poema de mio Cid, ed. Michael (Clásicos Castalia).

Juan Ruiz, Libro de Buen Amor, ed. Gybbon-Monypenny (Clásicos Castalia).

Comedia o tragicomedia de Calisto y Melibea, ed. P. E. Russell (Clásicos Castalia).

Portuguese:

E. Gonçalves and M. A. Ramos, A Lírica Galego-Portuguesa (Comunicação).

Alfonso X the Learned, Cantigas de Santa Maria. An anthology, ed. Stephen Parkinson (MHRA Critical texts)

Fernão Lopes, Crónica de D. João I (textos escolhidos), ed. T. Amado (Comunicação).

Zurara, Crónica dos feitos de Guiné (chs. 1-25). (Candidates are advised also to read Zurara, Chronique de Guinée, ed. L. Bourdon (Ifan-Dakar, 1960)).

Russian:

The syllabus will consist of the following texts with passages for commentary eligible to be set from those marked with an*:

Avvakum, Zhitie*

‘Povest' o Savve Grudtsyne’; ‘Povest' o Frole Skobeeve’; ‘Povest' o Bove Koroleviche’

Antiokh Kantemir Satires I*, II, IV, VII, IX

Mikhailo Lomonosov: ‘Oda na vzyatie Khotina’; ‘Pis'mo o pol'ze stekla’, ‘Oda torzhestvennaya (1747)*; ‘Oda torzhestvennaya (1762)*; ‘Utrennee razmyshlenie o bozhiem velichestve’*, ‘Vechernee ramyshlenie’*.

Aleksandr Sumarokov, ‘Epistola o stikhotvorstve’; ‘Lyubovnye elegii’ [extracts]*

Denis Fonvizin, Brigadir, Nedorosl'*;

Vassily Kapnist, Yabeda

Ippolit Bogdanovich, Dushen’ka

N.I. Novikov, Satiricheskie zhurnaly. Excerpts.

M. Chulkov, Prigozhaya povarikha*

Alexander Radishchev, Puteshestvie iz Peterburga v Moskvu [3 chapters to be prescribed*]

Gavriil Derzhavin: ‘Bog’*; ‘Pamyatnik geroyu’; ‘Vel'mozha’; ‘Vlastitelyam i sud'yam’; ‘Russkie devushki’; ‘Evgeniyu. Zhizn' zvanskaya’*; ‘Solovey vo sne’; ‘Na smert' knyazya Meshcherskogo’*, ‘Priglashenie k obedu’; ‘Pamyatnik’; ‘Moi istukan’; ‘Reka vremen v svoem stremlenii’.

Nikolai Karamzin, Bednaya Liza*, Ostrov Borngol'm; Pis’ma russkogo puteshesvennika [extracts]

Vassily Zhukovsky, Svetlana; ‘Sel’skoe kladbishche’*

Ivan Krylov, ‘Pis’mo o pol’ze zhelanii’; ‘Strekoza i muravei’, ‘Vorona i lisitsa’, ‘Lebed' rak i shchuka’, ‘Volk i iagnionok’, ‘Volk na psarne’, ‘Kvartet’, ‘Ryb'i pliaski’

Konstantin Batiushkov, ‘Moi Penaty’*; ‘Moi genii’; Elegiia; Na razvalnyakh zamke v Shvetsii;

Alexandr Pushkin, Ruslan i Liudmila; selected lyrics*

Medieval and Modern Greek:

Candidates may choose one of either A or B:6

The commentary section of the paper will include compulsory passages for translation.

A: Byzantine texts:

Paul the Silentiary, Ekphrasis of Haghia Sophia (ed. Friedlander).

Christ and Paranikas, Anthologia graeca carminum Christianorum, pp. 147-236 and 247-52.

The Life of St Andreas Salos (ed. L. Ryden).

Michael Psellos, Chronographia, bk. VI (ed. S. Impellizzeri, vol. 1, pp. 246-320, and vol. 2, pp. 8-152).

B: Medieval vernacular texts:

Digenis Akritis: the Grottaferrata and Escorial Versions (ed. E. M. Jeffreys).

Livistros kai Rodamni (ed. P. A. Agapitos).

Ptochoprodromos (ed. H. Eideneier).

Passages will not be set from:

Digenis Akritis, Grottaferrata version, book V.

Ptochoprodromus, poem IV.

Czech (with Slovak):

Dalimilova kronika, chs. 1-32, 41, 66-70, 102-6.

Život svaté Kateřiny.

Tkadleček.

Candidates will be required to answer one question on each of the three texts, including one commentary. They will also be required to translate a passage.

Celtic:

Any four of the following: Early Texts (commentary section of the paper will include compulsory passages for translation).

Togail Bruidne Da Derga, ed. E. Knott (Dublin, 1936)

Fingal Rónáin and Other Stories, ed. D. Greene (Dublin, 1955).

Scéla Cano meic Gartnáin, ed. D. A. Binchy (Dublin, 1963).

Serglige Con Culainn, ed. M. Dillon (Dublin, 1953).

Cath Almaine, ed. P. O. Riain (Dublin, 1978).

The Irish Adam and Eve Story from Saltair na Rann, ed. D. Greene and F. Kelly (Dublin, 1976).

Canu Aneirin, ed. I. Williams (Cardiff, 1938).

Canu Llywarch Hen, ed. I. Williams (Cardiff, 1935).

Armes Prydein, ed. I. Williams (Cardiff, 1955; or Dublin, 1972).

M. Haycock, Blodeugerdd Barddas o Ganu Crefyddol Cynnar (Y Bala: Barddas, 1994).

Culhwch ac Olwen, ed. R. Bromwich and D. Simon Evans (Cardiff, 1992).

Selection from the series: R. Geraint Gruffydd (gen. ed.), Cyfres Beirdd y Tywysogion vols. I, II, V–VII (Cardiff, 1991-6).

]X. Modern Prescribed Authors (i): 7 8Passages for explanation and comment will be taken from the works prescribed for special study[For students starting from MT 2018: , which will be specified in the relevant modern language's FHS course handbook]. Candidates will be expected to have read works by their chosen authors other than those prescribed for special study.

French:

Any two of the following:

  • [For students starting from MT 2018: (1) Rabelais

  • (2) Montaigne 

  • (3) Pascal 

  • (4) Molière  

  • (5) Racine 

  • (6) Voltaire 

  • (7) Diderot ]

[For students starting before MT 2018: (1) Rabelais, with a special study of Gargantua and Le Quart Livre.

 (2)  Montaigne, with a special study of Essais, I. 20 (Que philosopher, c'est apprendre à mourir), I. 23 (De la coutume et de ne changer aisément une loi reçue), I. 26 (De l'institution des enfants), II. 17 (De la praesumption), II. 6 (De l'exercitation), III. 2 (Du repentir), III. 5 (Sur des vers de Virgile), III. 13 (De l'expérience).

  (3) Pascal, Les Provinciales, Pensées et opuscules divers, éd. G. Ferreyrolles et P. Sellier, in La Pochothéque (Livres de poche/Classiques Garnier), with a special study of Pensées, 1-414; 419-671; 680-690; 694-695; 697-717;  742-769; De l'esprit géométrique et de l'art de persuader.

  (4) Moliere, with a special study of L'École des femmes, Les Fourberies de Scapin, Le Tartuffe, Dom Juan, Le Misanthrope,Le Malade Imaginaire.

  (5) Racine, with a special study of: Andromaque, Britannicus, Bérénice, Bajazet, Iphigénie, Athalie in Théâtre complet, ed. J. Rohou (Pochothèque, Livre de Poche, 1998).

  (6) Voltaire, with a special study of Romans et contes, ed. E. Guitton (Pochothèque, Livre de Poche, 1994): the following works: Zadig, Paméla (pp. 138–96), Candide, contes de Guillaume Vadé (pp. 339–453), La Princesse de Babylone, Les Lettres d’Amabed, Le Taureau blanc; Lettres philosophiques, ed. F. Deloffre, Folio.

  (7) Diderot, with a special study of Le Rêve d’Alembert, ed. Chouillet, Livre de Poche, Jacques le fataliste, ed. Belaval, Folio Le Neveu de Rameau, ed. Varloot, Folio, Le Salon de 1765, ed. Bukdahl and Lorenceau, Hermann.]

German:

Any two of the following:

  • [For students starting from MT 2018: (1) Luther

  • (2) Schiller

  • (3) Holderlin

  • (4) Kleist

  • (5) Hoffmann

  • (6) Heine

  • (7) Rilke

  • (8) Thomas Mann

  • (9) Kafka

  • (10) Brecht

  • (11) Grass

  • (12) Christa Wolf

  • (13) Thomas Bernhard

  • (14) Elfriede Jelinek

  • (15) Herta Muller]

 

  • [For students starting before MT 2018: [For students starting before MT 2016:

  • (1) Luther, with a special study of Von der Freyheyt eyniβ Christenmenschen (http://luther.chadwyck.co.uk).

  • (2) Gryphius, with a special study of Gedichte, ed. Elschenbroich (Reclam). Candidates will further be expected to have studied a representative selection of Gryphius's drama.

  • (3) Grimmelshausen, with a special study of Simplicissimus (Teutsch). Candidates will further be expected to have studied others of the ‘Simplizianische Schriften’.

  • (4) Goethe as dramatist, with a special study of Faust, part I. Candidates will further be expected to have studied at least three other dramatic works by Goethe.

  • (5) Schiller, with a special study of Wallenstein. Candidates will further be expected to have studied other works representative of Schiller's development as a dramatist.

  • (6) Hölderlin, with a special study of Friedrich Hölderlin, Gedichte, ed. Gerhard Kurz and Wolfgang Braungart, Reihe Reclam, the poetry 1798–1806.

  • (7) Kleist, with a special study of Prinz Friedrich von Homburg. Candidates will further be expected to have studied a representative selection of Kleist's plays and prose works.

  • (8) Hoffmann, with a special study of Der Sandmann and Der goldne Topf. Candidates will further be expected to have studied at least one of the novels and a representative selection of the shorter fiction.

  • (9) Heine, with a special study of Atta Troll and Deutschland, ein Wintermärchen. Candidates will further be expected to have studied a representative selection of Heine's poetry and prose, the latter to include the Reisebilder.

  • (10) Rilke, with a special study of Neue Gedichte. Candidates will further be expected to have studied a representative selection of Rilke's other writings.

  • (11) Thomas Mann, with a special study of Bekenntnisse des Hochstaplers Felix Krull. Candidates will further be expected to have studied at least one of the novels and a representative selection of the shorter fiction.

  • (12) Kafka, with a special study of Der Proceβ: Roman in der Fassung der Handschrift, ed. Malcolm Pasley (Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, No. 114123). Candidates will further be expected to have studied a representative selection of Kafka's other fiction.

  • (13) Brecht, with a special study of Leben des Galilei. Candidates will further be expected to have studied other works representative of Brecht's development as dramatist and poet.

  • (14) Grass, with a special study of Die Blechtrommel. Candidates will further be expected to have studied a representative selection of Grass's prose fiction.

  • (15) Christa Wolf, with a special study of Nachdenken über Christa T. Candidates will further be expected to have studied a representative selection of Christa Wolf's prose works.

  • (16) W. G. Sebald, with special study of Austerlitz. Candidates will further be expected to have studied a representative selection of Sebald’s other works.

  • (17) Rainer Werner Fassbinder, with special study of the film Katzelmacher. Candidates will further be expected to have studied a representative selection of Fassbinder’s other films and plays.

  • (18) Elfriede Jelinek, with special study of Die Klavierspielerin. Candidates will further be expected to have studied a representative selection of Jelinek’s other works. ]

  • [For students starting from MT 2016 and before MT 2017:

  • (1) Luther, with a special study of Von der Freyheyt eyniβ Christenmenschen (http://luther.chadwyck.co.uk).

  • (2) Goethe as dramatist, with a special study of Faust, part I. Candidates will further be expected to have studied at least three other dramatic works by Goethe.

  • (3) Schiller, with a special study of Wallenstein. Candidates will further be expected to have studied other works representative of Schiller's development as a dramatist.

  • (4) Hölderlin, with a special study of Friedrich Hölderlin, Gedichte, ed. Gerhard Kurz and Wolfgang Braungart, Reihe Reclam, the poetry 1798–1806.

  • (5) Kleist, with a special study of Prinz Friedrich von Homburg. Candidates will further be expected to have studied a representative selection of Kleist's plays and prose works.

  • (6) Hoffmann, with a special study of Der Sandmann and Der goldne Topf. Candidates will further be expected to have studied at least one of the novels and a representative selection of the shorter fiction.

  • (7) Heine, with a special study of Atta Troll and Deutschland, ein Wintermärchen. Candidates will further be expected to have studied a representative selection of Heine's poetry and prose, the latter to include the Reisebilder.

  • (8) Rilke, with a special study of Neue Gedichte. Candidates will further be expected to have studied a representative selection of Rilke's other writings.

  • (9) Thomas Mann, with a special study of Bekenntnisse des Hochstaplers Felix Krull. Candidates will further be expected to have studied at least one of the novels and a representative selection of the shorter fiction.

  • (10) Kafka, with a special study of Der Proceβ: Roman in der Fassung der Handschrift, ed. Malcolm Pasley (Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, No. 114123). Candidates will further be expected to have studied a representative selection of Kafka's other fiction.

  • (11) Brecht, with a special study of Leben des Galilei. Candidates will further be expected to have studied other works representative of Brecht's development as dramatist and poet.

  • (12) Grass, with a special study of Die Blechtrommel. Candidates will further be expected to have studied a representative selection of Grass's prose fiction.

  • (13) Christa Wolf, with a special study of Nachdenken über Christa T. Candidates will further be expected to have studied a representative selection of Christa Wolf's prose works.

  • (14) W. G. Sebald, with special study of Austerlitz. Candidates will further be expected to have studied a representative selection of Sebald’s other works.

  • (15) Rainer Werner Fassbinder, with special study of the film Katzelmacher. Candidates will further be expected to have studied a representative selection of Fassbinder’s other films and plays.

  • (16) Elfriede Jelinek, with special study of Die Klavierspielerin. Candidates will further be expected to have studied a representative selection of Jelinek’s other works. ]

  • [For students starting from MT 2017 and before MT 2018:

  • (1) Luther, with a special study of Von der Freyheyt eyniβ Christenmenschen (http://luther.chadwyck.co.uk).

  • (2) Schiller, with a special study of Wallenstein. Candidates will further be expected to have studied other works representative of Schiller's development as a dramatist.

  • (3) Hölderlin, with a special study of Friedrich Hölderlin, Gedichte, ed. Gerhard Kurz and Wolfgang Braungart, Reihe Reclam, the poetry 1798–1806.

  • (4) Kleist, with a special study of Prinz Friedrich von Homburg. Candidates will further be expected to have studied a representative selection of Kleist's plays and prose works.

  • (5) Hoffmann, with a special study of Die Elixiere des Teufels. Candidates will further be expected to have studied a representative selection of Hoffmann's other writings.

  • (6) Heine, with a special study of Atta Troll and Deutschland, ein Wintermärchen. Candidates will further be expected to have studied a representative selection of Heine's poetry and prose, the latter to include the Reisebilder.

  • (7) Rilke, with a special study of Neue Gedichte (both parts). Candidates will further be expected to have studied a representative selection of Rilke's other writings.

  • (8) Thomas Mann, with a special study of Buddenbrooks. Candidates will further be expected to have studied at least one more of the novels and a representative selection of the shorter fiction.

  • (9) Kafka, with a special study of Der Proceβ: Roman in der Fassung der Handschrift, ed. Malcolm Pasley (Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, No. 114123). Candidates will further be expected to have studied a representative selection of Kafka's other fiction.

  • (10) Brecht, with a special study of Mutter Courage und ihre Kinder. Candidates will further be expected to have studied other works representative of Brecht's development as dramatist and poet.

  • (11) Grass, with a special study of Die Blechtrommel. Candidates will further be expected to have studied a representative selection of Grass's prose fiction.

  • (12) Christa Wolf, with a special study of Kassandra and Voraussetzungen einer Erzählung: Kassandra. Candidates will further be expected to have studied a representative selection of Christa Wolf's prose works.

  • (13) Thomas Bernhard, with a special study of Alte Meister. Candidates will further be expected to have studied a representative selection of Bernhard’s plays and fiction.

  • (14) Elfriede Jelinek, with special study of Die Klavierspielerin. Candidates will further be expected to have studied a representative selection of Jelinek’s other works.

  • (15) Herta Müller, with a special study of Herztier. Candidates will further be expected to have studied a representative selection of Müller’s other works.

  • (16) Christian Petzold, with a special study of Jerichow. Candidates will further be expected to have studied a representative selection of Petzold’s other works. ]

Note. The paper will contain questions of a general nature, and questions on specific texts. Candidates will not be allowed to make any one text the principal subject of more than one answer.]

Italian:

Any two of the following:

  • [For students starting from MT 2018: (1) Petrarch

  • (2) Boccaccio

  • (3) Machiavelli

  • (4) Ariosto

  • (5) Tasso]

 [For students starting before MT 2018: (1) Petrarch, with a special study of the Canzoniere, Nos. 1-12; 16-24; 30; 34-7; 50-4; 60-2; 70; 72; 77; 80-1; 90-2; 102; 119; 125-6; 128-9; 132-4; 136; 142; 145; 148; 159-60; 164; 197; 211; 219; 263-4; 268; 272; 279-80; 287-92; 302-4; 310-11; 315; 327; 353; 359-60; 364-6. Candidates will further be expected to have studied a representative selection of Petrarch's other Italian poems and of works originally written in Latin.

  • (2) Boccaccio, with a special study of the Decameron, I. 1-3; II, 2, 5, 10; III, 2; IV, 1, 2, 5, 7, 9; V, 6, 8, 9; VI, 1, 9, 10; VII, 4, 9; VIII, 3, 8; IX, 1, 2; X, 2, 9, 10. Candidates will further be expected to have studied a representative selection of other parts of the Decameron and of other works by Boccaccio.

  • (3) Machiavelli, with a special study of Il Principe. Candidates will further be expected to have studied a representative selection of Machiavelli's other works, including I discorsi and La mandragola.

  • (4) Ariosto, with a special study of Orlando Furioso, cantos I-XIII.45; XVIII.146-XXIV; XXVIII-XXX; XXXIV; XLV-XLVI. Candidates will further be expected to have studied other parts of the Orlando Furioso and a selection of the Satire.

  • (5) Tasso, with a special study of Gerusalemme Liberata, cantos I–VII, XI–XVI; XIX–XX, and Aminta. Candidates will further be expected to have studied other parts of the Gerusalemme Liberata.]

Spanish:

Any two of the following:

  • [For students starting from MT 2018: (1) Garcilaso de la Vega

  • (2) Cervantes

  • (3) Gongora

  • (4) Quevedo

  • (5) Calderon ]

  • [For students starting before MT 2018: (1) Garcilaso de la Vega, Obra poética y textos en prosa (ed. B. Morros, Crítica) (not including the Latin poetry and the prose texts).

  • (2) Cervantes, with a special study of El ingenioso hidalgo don Quijote de la Mancha. (Passages for commentary will be set from the Second Part only.)

  • (3) Góngora, with a special study of Soledad primera (from Soledades, ed. R. Jammes, Castalia), Fábula de Polifemo y Galatea (ed. J. Ponce Cárdenas, Cátedra), Sonnets (in Poems of Góngora, ed. R. O. Jones, pp. 87-92). Candidates will be expected to have read Soledad segunda, but passages for commentary will not be set from it.

  • (4) Quevedo, with a special study of ‘Infierno’, ‘El mundo por de dentro’, ‘Sueño de la muerte’, in Sueños y discursos (ed. J. O. Crosby, Castalia); La cuna y la sepultura, and España defendida (Preliminaries and Chapter 5 only), in Obras completas, I: Prosa (ed. F. Buendía, Aguilar); Poesía varia (ed. J. O. Crosby, Cátedra), nos. 16-30, 35-53, 71-83, 87-106, 128-33, 160-1; El buscón (ed. D. Ynduráin, Cátedra).

  • (5) Calderón, with a special study of La vida es sueño (ed. C. Morón, Cátedra) (candidates will be expected to have read the auto of the same name, but passages for commentary will be not be set from it). El pintor de su deshonra (ed. Ruiz Lagos, Colección Aula Magna), El mágico prodigioso, and El Alcalde de Zalamea (both Clásicos castellanos), El gran teatro del mundo (ed. B. W. Wardropper, Cátedra), El alcalde de Zalamea (ed. J. Ma. Díez Borque, Castalia), and El gran teatro del mundo (ed. E. Frutos Cortés, Cátedra).]

Portuguese:

Any two of the following:

  • [For students starting from MT 2018: (1) Gil Vincente

  • (2) Joao de Barros

  • (3) Camoes

  • (4) Francisco Manuel de Melo

  • (5) Antonio Ferreira]

  • [For students starting before MT 2018: (1) Gil Vicente, with a special study of Auto da Alma, Auto da Feira, Farsa de Inês Pereira, Farsa dos Almocreves, O Triunfo do Inverno, Dom Duardos.

  • (2) João de Barros, with a special study of Rópica Pnefma (ed. I. S. Révah, Lisbon, 1955) and Décadas, vol. I (ed. A. Baião, Sá da Costa, Lisbon, 1945).

  • (3) Camões, with a special study of Os Lusíadas (ed. F. Pierce) and Líricas (ed. Rodrigues Lapa, 1970 or later).

  • (4) Francisco Manuel de Melo, with a special study of Epanáfora política, Relógios falantes, Hospital das Letras, Carta de Guía de Casados, O Fidalgo Aprendiz.

  • (5) António Ferreira, Bristo, Cioso, Poemas Lusitanos (including A Castro).]

Russian:

Any two of the following:

  • [For students starting from MT 2018: (1) Pushkin

  • (2) Gogol

  • (3) Mandel'shtam

  • (4) Mayakovsky

  • (5) Bulgakov]

  • [For students starting before MT 2018: (1) Pushkin, with a special study of Tsygany, Evgeny Onegin, Povesti Belkina, Selected lyrics (copies of the list of prescribed poems are available from the Slavonic Library, 47 Wellington Square).

  • (2) Gogol, with a special study of Mirgorod, (excluding Taras Bul'ba) Shinel', Zapiski sumasshedshego, Nevsky Prospekt, Portret, Nos, Mertvye dushi Part I, Revizor.

  • (3) Mandel'shtam. Selected lyrics (copies of the prescribed poems are available from the Slavonic Library, 47 Wellington Square). Candidates will also be expected to have read a representative selection of Mandel'shtam's artistic prose and articles on literary topics.

  • (4) Mayakovsky, with a special study of Oblako v shtanakh, Pro eto, Lyublyu, Klop, and selected lyrics (copies of the prescribed poems are available from the Slavonic Library, 47 Wellington Square). Candidates will also be expected to have read Kak delat' stikhi and a representative selection of Mayakovsky's other works.

  • (5) Bulgakov, with a special study of Beelaya gvardiya, Sobach'e serdtse, Beg, Master i Margarita.]

Medieval and Modern Greek:

Any two of the following:

  • [For students starting from MT 2018: (1) Digenis Akritis

  • (2) The vernacular verse romances

  • (3) Cretan drama

  • (4) Erotokritos

  • (5) Greek oral poetry]

  • [For students starting before MT 2018: (1) Digenis Akritis: the Grottaferrata and Escorial Versions (ed. E. M. Jeffreys).

  • (2) The vernacular verse romances.

  • (3) Cretan drama, with a special study of Chortatsis' Erophile, Katzourbos, and Panoria (ed. R. Bancroft-Marcus).

  • (4) Erotokritos.

  • (5) Greek oral poetry.]

Czech (with Slovak):

Any three of the following:

  • [For students starting from MT 2018: (1) Comenius

  • (2) Hrabal

  • (3) Hodrova

  • (4) Holan

  • (5) Johanides

  • (6) Mitana]

  •  [For students starting before MT 2018: (1) Comenius, with a special study of Labyrint světa a ráj srdce.

  • (2) Hrabal, with a special study of Obsluhoval jsem anglického krále.

  • (3) Hodrová, with a special study of Podobojí.

  • (4) Holan, with a special study of Terezka Planetová.

  • (5) Johanides, with a special study of Marek koniar a uhorský pápež.

  • (6) Mitana, with a special study of the volume Prievan.

Candidates will be required to answer questions on each of their three authors, including one commentary.]

Celtic:

Any two of the following:

  • [For students starting from MT 2018: (1) Gwaith Guto'r Glyn

  • (2) Gwaith Tudur Aled

  • (3) Gwaith Iorwerth Fynglwyd

  • (4) Gramadegau'r Penceirddiaid

  • (5) Acallam na Senórach

  • (6) Caithréim Cellaig

  • (7) Buile Shuibne

  • (8) Tóruigheacht Dhiarmada agus Ghráinne

  • (9) Dánta Grádha]

  • [For students starting before MT 2018: (1) Gwaith Guto'r Glyn, ed. I. Williams and J. Llywelyn Williams (Cardiff, 1939).

  • (2) Gwaith Tudur Aled, ed. T. Gwynn Jones (Cardiff, 1926).

  • (3) Gwaith Iorwerth Fynglwyd, ed. H. Ll. Jones and E. I. Rowlands (Cardiff, 1973).

  • (4) Gramadegau'r Penceirddiaid, ed. G. J. Williams and E. J. Jones (Cardiff, 1934), Texts A and C (pp. 1-18, 39-58).

  • (5) Acallam na Senórach (in the selection ed. M. Dillon, Stories from the Acallam [Dublin, 1970]).

  • (6) Caithréim Cellaig, ed. K. Mulchrone, 2nd edn. (Dublin, 1971).

  • (7) Buile Shuibne, ed. J. G. O'Keefe (Dublin, 1931).

  • (8) Tóruigheacht Dhiarmada agus Ghráinne, ed. N. Ní Sheaghdha, Irish Texts Society 48 (Dublin, 1967).

  • (9) Dánta Grádha, ed. T. F. O'Rahilly, 2nd edn. (Cork: Cork University Press, 1926).]

7XI. Early Modern Literary Texts or Goethe (German only) or

7Modern Prescribed Authors (ii):

Passages for explanation and comment will be taken from the works prescribed for special study [For students starting from MT 2018: ,which will be specified in the relevant modern language's FHS course handbook].  Candidates will be expected to have read works by their chosen authors other than those prescribed for special study.

French:

Any two of the following:

  • [For students starting from MT 2018: (1) Stendhal

  • (2) Baudelaire

  • (3) Flaubert

  • (4) Mallarmé

  • (5) Djebar

  • (6) Beckett

  • (7) Duras

  • (8) Barthes]

  • [For students starting before MT 2018: (1) Stendhal, with a special study of Le Rouge et le Noir and La Chartreuse de Parme.

  • (2) Baudelaire, with a special study of Les Fleurs du Mal and the Petits Poèmes en prose.

  • (3) Flaubert, with a special study of Madame Bovary, Trois Contes, and L'Éducation sentimentale.

  • (4) Mallarmé, with a special study of Poésies (edition Deman), ed. Bertrand Marchal (Gallimard, Collection Poésie, 1992, pp. 1-74), and Igitur, Divagations, Un coup de dés, ed. Bertrand Marchal (Gallimard, Collection Poésie, 2003), omitting Igitur, Quelques médaillons et portraits en pied and Pages diverses.

  • (5) [For students starting before MT 2017: Gide, with a special study of L'Immoraliste, La Porte étroite, Si le grain ne meurt, and Les Faux-Monnayeurs.] [For students starting from MT 2017 and before MT 2018: Djebar, with a special study of Femmes d’Alger dans leur appartement; L’Amour, la fantasia; Le Blanc de l’Algérie and Nulle part dans la maison de mon père.]

  • (6) [For students starting before MT 2017: Sartre, with a special study of La Nausée, Les Mouches, Les Séquestrés d'Altona, and [For students starting from MT 2017 ad before MT 2018: Beckett, with a special study of Molloy, Fin de partie, La dernière bande, Oh les beaux jours, Têtes-mortes (2nd edn, with the following as prescribed texts: ‘Assez’, ‘Imagination morte imaginez’, ‘Bing’ and ‘Sans’), and

  • (7) Duras, with a special study of Un barrage contre le Pacifique, Le Ravissement de Lol V. Stein, L'Amant, and Hiroshima, mon amour (film script).

  • (8) Barthes, with a special study of L’Empire des signes, Le Plaisir du texte, Roland Barthes par Roland Barthes, and La Chambre claire.]

German:

[For students starting before MT 2016: Either A : Early Modern Literary Texts

Any four out of the following six topics:

  • (1) Luther: Von der Freyheyt eyniβ Christenmenschen and Von weltlicher Obrigkeit (http://luther.chadwyck.co.uk).

  • (2) Reformation controversy: Hans Sachs, Die Wittenbergisch Nachtigall (Reclam edition), and Caritas Pirckheimer, Denkwürdigkeiten (http://sophie.byu.edu).

  • (3) Religious poetry: Andreas Gryphius, Gedichte (Reclam edition) and Catharina Regina von Greiffenberg, Gedichte (www.wortblume.de).

  • (4) Secular poetry: Paul Fleming, Gedichte (Reclam edition) and Sybille Schwarz, Gedichte (www.wortblume.de).

  • (5) The novel: Historia von D. Johann Fausten (Reclam edition) and Grimmelshausen: Courasche (Reclam edition).

  • (6) Baroque tragedy: Daniel Casper von Lohenstein, Cleopatra (Reclam edition) and Sophonisbe (Reclam edition).

Note. This paper will require candidates to attempt a commentary and two essay questions.

Or B:] Goethe. Candidates will be required to read a selection of Goethe’s works in more than one genre. Candidates for this paper may not offer Goethe as dramatist as one of their authors on Paper X.

Italian:

Any two of the following:

  • [For students starting from MT 2018: (1) Manzoni

  • (2) Leopardi

  • (3) D'Annunzio

  • (4) Verga

  • (5) Pirandello

  • (6) Montale

  • (7) Calvino]

  • [For students starting before MT 2018: (1) Manzoni, with a special study of I promessi sposi. Candidates will further be expected to have studied Manzoni's tragedies and a selection of his other works.

  • (2) Leopardi, with a special study of I Canti. Candidates will further be expected to have studied the Operette morali and a selection of Leopardi's other writings.

  • (3) D'Annunzio, with a special study of Alcyone. Candidates will further be expected to have studied a selection of D'Annunzio's other works in verse and prose.

  • (4) Verga, with a special study of I Malavoglia and Mastro-don Gesualdo. Candidates will further be expected to have studied a selection of Verga's other fiction.

  • (5) Pirandello, with a special study of Il fu Mattia Pascal, Sei personaggi in cerca d'autore, and I giganti della montagna. Candidates will further be expected to have studied a representative selection of Pirandello's drama and prose work.

  • (6) Montale, with a special study of ‘Ossi di seppia’ in Ossi di seppia, Section IV of Le occasioni, ‘Finisterre’ in La bufera e altro and ‘Xenia I’ in Satura. Candidates will further be expected to have studied a representative selection of Montale's other poems.

  • (7) Calvino, with a special study of Il cavaliere inesistente and Se una notte d'inverno un viaggiatore. Candidates will further be expected to have studied other works representative of Calvino's development as a writer.]

Spanish:

Any two of the following:

  • [For students starting from MT 2018: (1) Pérez Galdós

  • (2) Leopoldo Alas

  • (3) Valle-Inclán

  • (4) Federico García Lorca

  • (5) Neruda

  • (6) Borges

  • (7) Julio Cortázar

  • (8) Gabriel García Márquez

  • (9) Mario Vargas Llosa]]

    • (1) Pérez Galdós, with a special study of Juan Martín el Empecinado, El amigo Manso, Miau, Nazarín. 

    • (2) Leopoldo Alas, with a special study of La Regenta (ed. Gonzalo Sobejano, Clásicos Castalia), and Cuentos escogidos (ed. G. G. Brown, Oxford, 1964).

    • (3) Valle-Inclán, with a special study of the Sonatas; Divinas palabras; Luces de Bohemia; Los cuernos de don Friolera (ed. A. Zamora Vicente, Clásicos castellanos); Tirano Banderas (ed. A. Zamora Vicente).

    • (4) Federico García Lorca, with a special study of Canciones (ed. M. Hernández); Mariana Pineda; Bodas de sangre, El público, (ed. C.M. Millán). Poeta en Nueva York (ed. M.C. Millán).

    • (5) Neruda, with a special study of Veinte poemas de amor y una canción desesperada (ed. Montes, Clásicos Castalia, Madrid, 1987); Canto general (I, II, XIV, XV); Memorial de Isla Negra (I, IV) (Seix Barral, Barcelona, 1976); Pablo Neruda : A Basic Anthology (ed. Pring-Mill, Dolphin, Oxford, 1975), pp. 8-42 and 80-109, and those poems included in the Basic Anthology from the following collections: Estravagario, Plenos poderes, Jardín de invierno, and El mar y las campanas.

    • (6) Borges, with a special study of Ficciones (ed. either Emecé or Alianza-Emecé); El aleph; El informe de Brodie; Obra poética 1923-1976 (ed. Alianza-Emecé, sections entitled El hacedor and El otro, el mismo).

      (7) Julio Cortázar, with a special study of Bestiario and Rayuela.

    • (8) Gabriel García Márquez, with a special study of El coronel no tiene quien le escriba and Cien años de soledad

Portuguese:

Any two of the following:

  • [For students starting from MT 2018: (1) Almeida Garrett

  • (2) Eça de Queirós

  • (3) Machado de Assis

  • (4) Fernando Pessoa

  • (5) Graciliano Ramos

  • (6) Clarice Lispector

  • (7) Mia Couto

  • (8) Pepetela]

  • [For students starting before MT 2018: (1) Almeida Garrett, with a special study of Frei Luís de Sousa, O Arco de Sant' Ana, Viagens na Minha Terra, Folhas Caídas.

  • (2) Eça de Queirós, with a special study of O Crime do Padre Amaro, Os Maias, and A Cidade e as Serras.

  • (3) Machado de Assis, with a special study of Memórias póstumas de Brás Cubas, Dom Casmurro, and Quincas Borba.

  • (4) Fernando Pessoa, with a special study of Obras completas, vol. I (Ática) Mensagem and Poesia de Alvaro de Campos.

  • (5) Graciliano Ramos, with a special study of Caetés.

  • (6) Clarice Lispector, with a special study of Perto do Coração Selvagem, A Paixão segundo G. H., A Hora da Estrela.

  • (7) Mia Couto, with special study of Vozes anoitecidas, Terra sonãmbula, A varanda do frangipani.

    (8) Pepetela, with special reference to Yaka, Predadores, and A Gloriosa Família.]

Russian:

Any two of the following:

  • [For students starting from MT 2018: (1) Dostoevsky

  • (2) Tolstoy

  • (3) Chekhov

  • (4) Solzhenitsyn

  • (5) Nabokov]

  • [For students starting before MT 2018: (1) Dostoevsky, with a special study of Prestuplenie i nakazanie, Brat'ya Karamazovy, Zapiski iz podpol'ya.

  • (2) Tolstoy, with a special study of Anna Karenina, Voyna i mir.

  • (3) Chekhov, with a special study of Palata No. 6, Poprygun'ya, Moya zhizn, Muzhiki, Dama s sobachkoy, V ovrage, Dushechka, Arkkhierey, and Nevesta, as well as Chayka, Dyadya Vanya, Tri sestry, Vishnevi sad.

  • (4) Solzhenitsyn, with a special study of Odin den' Ivana Denisovicha, V kruge pervom (candidates are expected to be familiar with the 96-chapter version of the novel first published in 1978), Rakovy korpus.

  • (5) Nabokov, with a special study of Otchayanie, Priglashenie na kazn’, Dar.]

Medieval and Modern Greek:

Any two of the following:

  • [For students starting from MT 2018: (1) Solomos

  • (2) Palamas

  • (3) Kavafis

  • (4) Seferis

  • (5) Tsirkas

  • (6) The novels of Kazantzakis

  • (7) Melipoiemene Poiese]

  • [For students starting before MT 2018: (1) Solomos, with a special study of the poems composed between 1825 and 1849 (Apanta, ed. L. Politis (Athens, 1961), pp. 139-255), the Dialogos, and the Gynaika tes Zakythos.

  • (2) Palamas, with a special study of O dodekalogos tou Gyftou, Oi khairetismoi tes Eliogennetes and the following sections of E asalefte zoe : Patrides, Foinikia, Askraios, Alysides.

  • (3) Kavafis, with a special study of Poiemata, vols. i and ii, ed. G. P. Savidis (Ikaros, Athens, 1963, or later).

  • (4) Seferis, with a special study of Poiemata (Athens, 1972, or later).

  • (5) Tsirkas, with a special study of the trilogy Akyvernetes politeies (E leskhe, Ariagne, and E nykhterida).

  • (6) The novels of Kazantzakis, with a special study of Vios kai politeia tou Alexe Zorba and O Khristos xanastavronetai.

  • (7) Melipoiemene Poiese, with special study of Nikos Gatsos, Amorgos and Collected Versus (Ikaros); Dionysis Savvopoulos, He Souma (Ianos, 2004)].

XII. Special Subjects.

1. A candidate may offer one or two (depending on the regulations outlined above) of the Special Subjects from the list circulated in the Trinity Term one year before the examination. The list of options available in that year will be publicised on the Faculty’s internal website (and circulated to all students and tutors by e-mail) by the beginning of fifth week of Trinity Term.

Methods of assessment:

The method of assessment for each subject will be published with the list of options by the beginning of the fifth week of the Trinity Term one year before the examination, according to the following key:

  • A: Three-hour unseen written paper.

  • B: An essay or portfolio of essays (the number of essays required to be shown in parentheses) aggregating to about 6,000 words and not exceeding 8,000 words, to be submitted by hand to the Examinations Schools, High Street, Oxford by noon on the Monday of the tenth week of Hilary Term in the year of the examination, together with a statement certifying that the essay(s) are the candidate's own work and that they have not already been submitted, either wholly or substantially, for a degree in this university or elsewhere.

  • C: An essay or portfolio of essays (the number of essays required to be shown in parentheses) aggregating to about 6,000 words and not exceeding 8,000 [For students starting before MT 2018: words (except that the Linguistic Project shall be in the range 8,000-10,000 words)], written as answers to an examination paper to be downloaded from the Faculty WebLearn website after 10am on the Friday of the fifth week of the Hilary Term next before the examination. Completed essay(s) should be submitted by hand to the Examinations Schools by noon on the Monday of tenth week of Hilary Term in the year of the examination, together with a statement certifying that the essays are the candidate's own work and that they have not already been submitted, either wholly or substantially, for a degree in this university or elsewhere.

2. Candidates may not be permitted to offer certain Special Subjects in combination with certain other papers. Candidates offering a Special Subject and another paper both of which involve the study of the same author or authors, may not make the same texts the principal subject of an answer in both the papers.

3. Instead of a Special Subject from the list for the year concerned, a candidate may follow the directions under Section 3. Paper XII. Special Subjects.

XIII. General Linguistics.

As specified for “Paper A. General Linguistics” in the Special Regulations for Linguistics in all Honour Schools including Linguistics.

XIV. Extended Essay (optional).

  • 1. Candidates may offer an Extended Essay, subject to the following provisions:

    • (i) The subject of every essay shall, to the satisfaction of the board of the faculty, fall within the scope of the Honour School of Modern Languages.

    • (ii) The subject of an essay may, but need not, overlap any subject or period on which the candidate offers a paper, but candidates should avoid repetition of material presented in the extended essay in other parts of the examination. Candidates should not offer a title involving the reading of works only or mainly in translation from the original.

    • (iii) Candidates are prohibited from making the same text or texts the principal subject of their Special Subject or Extended Essay and of an answer or essay in papers VI-XI but they are not prohibited from making an author the focus of their Special Subject or Extended Essay on whom they also intend to write in another part of the examination, as long as they make use of different texts and have due regard to the need to avoid repetition of the same material.

    • (iv) Candidates proposing to offer an essay must submit, through their college, to the Chair of the Board of the Faculty of Medieval and Modern Languages (on a form obtainable from the Modern Languages Administration and Faculty Office, 41 Wellington Square,) a statement of their name, college, the honour school they intend to offer, the academic year in which they intend to take the examination, and the title of the proposed essay together with (a) a statement in about fifty words of how the subject is to be treated, (b) a statement signed by a supervisor or tutor, preferably in the language or in one of the languages or in the field of study with which the extended essay is concerned, that they considers the subject suitable, and suggesting a person or persons who might be invited to be an examiner or an assessor (the board will not approve a title unless it is satisfied that a suitably qualified examiner or assessor based in Oxford will be available), and (c) a statement by a college tutor that they approve the candidate's application, not later than the Wednesday of the second week of the Michaelmas Full Term preceding the examination.

    • (v) Subject to the agreement of the faculty board, candidates may offer an essay written in the language or one of the languages they are offering in the Honour School; application, with a letter of support from a college tutor, should be made at the same time as the proposed title of the essay is submitted for approval. (This provision is not available in the case of Russian).

    • (vi) The faculty board will decide by the end of the third week of the Michaelmas Full Term preceding the examination whether the candidate has permission to offer an essay. Permission may be granted on the condition that the candidate agrees to amend details of the title to the satisfaction of the board, and submits the required amendments to the Administration and Faculty Office for the board's approval by Friday of the sixth week of the Michaelmas Full Term preceding the examination. If the proposed title is approved, this will be notified by the Administration and Faculty Office, together with any conditions attached to the approval, to the candidate and to the Chair of the Examiners for the Honour School.

    • (vii) A candidate may seek approval after Friday of the sixth week of the Michaelmas Full Term preceding the examination for an amendment of detail in an approved title, by application to the Administration and Faculty Office. The Chair of the Examiners and the Chair of the Board, acting together, will decide whether or not a proposed amendment shall be approved.

  • 2. Every essay must be the candidate's own work. Tutors may, however, discuss with candidates the proposed field of study, the sources available, and the method of presentation. Tutors may also read and comment on a first draft.

    All quotations, whether direct or indirect, from primary or secondary sources must be explicitly acknowledged. The use of unacknowledged quotations will be penalized.

    Candidates must sign a certificate stating that the essay is their own work and this certificate must be sent at the same time as the essay, but under separate cover, addressed to: The Chair of the Examiners, Honour School of Modern Languages, Examination Schools, High Street, Oxford.

  • 3. Essays previously submitted for the Honour School of Modern Languages may be resubmitted. No essay will be accepted if it has already been submitted, wholly or substantially, for another Honour School or degree of this University or a degree of any other institute. The certificate must contain a confirmation that the essay has not already been so submitted.

  • 4. No essay shall be ineligible because it has been submitted, in whole or in part, for any scholarship or prize in this university.

  • 5. Candidates shall present a one-page summary of the arguments in English at the beginning of their essay; essays shall be in the range 6,000-8,000 words (exclusive of the footnotes, the bibliography, any appendices, and summary (where this applies)). No person or body shall have authority to permit the limit of 8,000 words to be exceeded, except that, in the case of a commentary on a text, and at the discretion of the chair of the examiners, any substantial quoting of that text need not be included in the word limit. The examiners will not take account of such parts of an essay as are beyond these limits. There must be a select bibliography, listing all primary and secondary sources consulted when writing the essay, and full details must be given of all citations (either in the text, or in footnotes).

    All essays must be typed in double-spacing on one side only of A4 paper, and must be bound or held firmly in a stiff cover. Two copies must be submitted to the chair of the examiners, and a third copy must be retained by the candidate.

  • 6. The two copies of the essay must be sent, not later than noon on the Monday of tenth week of Hilary Term of the year in which the examination will be held, to: The Chair of the Examiners, Honour School of Modern Languages, Examination Schools, High Street, Oxford.


1 Czech (with Slovak) and Celtic may not be available in every year. [For students starting before MT 2018: Notice that these subjects, or a particular paper or particular papers, will not be available in a given year will be published in the University Gazette in the Trinity Term three years before the examination concerned.]

2  It is possible to do this paper with a knowledge of either Irish (with Scottish Gaelic) or Welsh, together with some Continental Celtic, or with a knowledge of both Irish and Welsh. Details of the passages for translation and comment are available from the Modern Languages Faculty Office.

3  Candidates offering both Portuguese paper VI and Portuguese paper VII may answer questions on the period 1500-40 in one of the two papers only. In papers VI and VII the questions affected by this provision will be indicated by an asterisk.

4 (a) Candidates offering both French paper VII and French paper VIII may answer questions on the period 1715-1800 in one of the two papers only. In both papers, the questions most obviously affected by this provision will be indicated by an asterisk. (b) Candidates offering subject 8(iii), Ancient and French Classical Tragedy, in the Honour School of Classics and Modern Languages will not be permitted to discuss the work of Corneille and Racine in French paper VII.

5 Each paper will be divided into two sections, one containing questions on the general aspects of the books and authors, and the other containing passages for explanation and comment. Both sections will be compulsory.

6 Those who offer B may not offer options (1) and (2) in Paper X.

7 Each paper will be divided into two sections, one containing questions on the general aspects of the books and authors, and the other containing passages for explanation and comment. Both sections will be compulsory.

8 Except in the case of Medieval and Modern Greek.