Section 9: Examinations
- 9.1 Introduction
- 9.2 General Matters
- 9.3 Complaints
- 9.4 Advice and Help
- 9.5 Plagiarism
- 9.6 Conduct in Examinations
As part of their wider responsibilities to make sure that the University’s Statutes and Regulations are upheld, the Proctors play an important role in the conduct of University (as distinct from college) Examinations. For example, the Proctors are involved in the formalities for the appointment of examiners; for establishing procedures for the staging of examinations; within specified limits, for approving dispensations and alternative arrangements; and for resolving queries and complaints. They liaise closely with the staff of the Examination Schools and the various University committees concerned with course content and student progress (in particular the University Council’s Education Committee).
It is the responsibility of every taught-course and research student to be familiar with the general regulations and the specific regulations for his or her programme of study as set out in the current issue of the relevant Examination Regulations. The University publishes new editions each year just before Michaelmas Term; up-to-date copies are available in college libraries, offices and common rooms. The text is also on the University’s website at www.admin.ox.ac.uk/examregs/.
The Examination Regulations cover a wide variety of important topics and should be read carefully. The following notes highlight some points, but they are not intended as a short-version substitute for the formal regulations and authoritative information from departments and faculties published in accordance with the regulations e.g. in course handbooks or on departmental websites. This section includes information on:
- making alternative examination arrangements (e.g. in case of disability or illness)
- what to do if you have a complaint
- how to get advice and help on examination matters
- the Proctors’ disciplinary regulations for examinations
- the Proctors’ administrative regulations for examinations
9.2 General Matters
An essential part of being a student of the University is the annual completion of registration. This is the process to ensure that the University has all the necessary information about you. When you access Student Self Service via OSS you will be asked to confirm your personal details, check your programme of study details, and confirm your new or continuing status for the forthcoming academic year. Students will receive further information about this from colleges. If you are studying for compulsory assessments (either examinations or written submissions), these will automatically be attached to your academic record at registration.
Residence and Terms
For most degrees and other qualifications the University requires students to spend a set amount of time in Oxford receiving tuition or carrying out their research. The time is specified as ‘minimum residence requirements’. Here residence means having resided within the University for at least six weeks in each of a certain number of terms. Full details are in Examination Regulations. If a student is prevented by illness or other reasonable cause from keeping the minimum residence requirements, the Proctors can excuse him or her from part of statutable residence; applications need to be made through the Senior Tutor (or other responsible officer) of your college.
Information about the fees payable by different categories of student, fees for late entry to examinations, late change of options etc. is given in Examination Regulations and some information is published on-line at http://www.ox.ac.uk/students/exams/entry/. Students who need to re-sit examinations (including re-submission of written work for assessment) may be liable to pay a re-examination fee.
Each Divisional Board or other responsible body sets out the definitive syllabus in the form of regulations. These contain a full description of what choices of options you may (or must) make, and any restrictions that apply (e.g. on combinations of options). Other conditions may also be explained, e.g. the form in which practical notebooks must be submitted, the length of essay options, theses etc. The regulations may include general statements about the form of the examination papers (e.g. ‘compulsory passages for comment will be set’) and whether aids such as calculators and dictionaries may be used in the examination. All these regulations are of course revised from time to time and it is important for students to refer to the up-to-date edition of Examination Regulations and to consult their subject tutors/supervisors. Many departments also publish information in course handbooks or on their websites.
Entering for examinations
It is each student’s own responsibility to ensure that the examination entry details are correct (via Student Self Service in OSS). Examination entries, including for submitted work such as dissertations or extended essays, are normally managed via your College. Late application for examination entry usually involves paying an extra fee: please note that late entries may not be possible.
The Examinations and Assessments team will publish the whole examination timetable for every subject on www.ox.ac.uk/students/exams/timetables and, later on, will send each candidate an individual timetable via his or her College.
You can take a University Examination (including re-sits) only if you are regarded by your college as being a ‘student member’ of the University as defined in Statute II (see section 1.3 of this booklet). You cannot enter an examination as a ‘private’ candidate.
Late alteration of options
If you want to change your notified options, a request has to be made in writing through the Senior Tutor (or other responsible officer) of your college. It cannot be assumed that permission will be given; requests involving the re-scheduling of examinations will generally not be granted. Where permission is given, an extra fee will be charged.
Deadlines for submissions
The submission dates for any essays, dissertations etc. which form part of your examination requirements can usually be found in the Examination Regulations handbook or course handbook, and they will in any case be notified to candidates. Research students should consult their supervisors or college advisors to make sure that the right action is taken before any relevant deadline.
Late submission of essays, theses etc.
There are set dates by which essays, theses, notebooks, etc. have to be submitted to the examiners. Candidates who do not submit their work by the required time are liable to be denied permission to remain in the examination or else to suffer an academic penalty unless they have been given prior special permission to present the work late. In exceptional circumstances, the Proctors, usually after consulting the Chair of Examiners, may allow extra time for submission. Where work is not submitted on time but the Proctors agree to allow it to be marked, a late-presentation fee will usually be charged. Any request has to be made through the Senior Tutor (or other responsible officer) of your college. As explained in section 3.3, the Proctors will not look sympathetically on requests for late submission of theses etc. in cases where computer data have been lost or stolen and back-up copies either were not made or were not kept separately. Similarly, the Proctors will not accept computer or printer break-down or viruses and other software problems as a legitimate reason for requesting extra time.
Revision of essays, theses, etc.
Once a candidate has submitted an essay, thesis, dissertation, project report etc. to the examiners, he or she may not withdraw it for revision (e.g. adding a missing section) and re-submission in the same examination (even if the closing-date has not passed) without the Proctors’ permission. Such permission will only be given in exceptional circumstances.
Alternative examination arrangements
In appropriate circumstances, alternative arrangements can be made before or (in cases where problems arise at short notice) during the examinations for candidates to take written papers at different times, in separate venues, with extra time, or with special facilities. In each case, your application needs to be forwarded to the Proctors through the Senior Tutor (or other responsible officer) of your college. Where appropriate, once approval has been given for alternative arrangements, this will be valid for all University Examinations taken during your course of study.
- visually-impaired or blind candidates requiring examination papers in alternative formats and/or separate examination venues (at least three months’ notice before the date of the examination is required by the Proctors)
- candidates who for religious reasons may not sit examination papers on particular days or special dates (the Junior Proctor should be informed in writing by Friday of 4th Week of Michaelmas Term)
- candidates with disability or injury which makes it difficult for them to take examinations in the Examination Schools or other official venue (a request accompanied by a medical certificate should be made to the Junior Proctor for the student to be allowed to take his/her examinations in a college venue with appropriate invigilation: such requests should be made by Friday of 4th Week of Michaelmas Term in the case of existing disabilities or injuries; or as soon as possible in other cases)
- candidates who require extra time (or, in some cases, alternative facilities) because they are dyslexic, dyspraxic, or have another SpLD — see below
- candidates who because of physical disability or long-term injury might need specific facilities such as use of a wordprocessor (a request accompanied by a medical certificate should be made to the Junior Proctor by Friday of 4th Week of Michaelmas Term and not later)
- candidates who fall ill or suffer an injury during the examination period but still wish to sit the papers at the announced or different times (a request accompanied by a medical certificate should be made as soon as possible through your Senior Tutor to the Junior Proctor, indicating the proposed college venue and appropriate invigilation arrangements)
- candidates who need to dictate their answers rather than write them down (a request accompanied by a medical certificate should be made as soon as possible through your Senior Tutor to the Junior Proctor, together with the college’s proposals for providing an amanuensis, venue and invigilation)
- candidates who produce illegible scripts (they will be required to have their answers transcribed at their own or the college’s expense after the examination: arrangements need to be approved by the Junior Proctor).
Students with specific learning difficulties (SpLDs) or other disabilities can apply, in exceptional cases, to Council’s Education Committee for their courses to be structured differently (e.g. taken over a longer period) and for the mode or timing of examinations to be modified. Such needs must be discussed with the relevant Senior Tutor once the student’s place at Oxford has been confirmed.
The Proctors will not normally accept sports or other non-academic commitments (or academic commitments at other institutions) as valid reasons for approving changes to a student’s examination arrangements in Oxford.
Candidates with specific learning difficulties (SpLDs), including dyslexia and dyspraxia
Students who already have a diagnosis of dyslexia, dyspraxia or other SpLDs should give a copy of their diagnostic report to their college office for referral to the Disability Advisory Service as soon as possible after arrival at the University. The DAS will review the report to confirm that it meets the University's criteria and send a summary of the diagnostic assessor's recommendations to the student's college. To be acceptable as evidence in applying for alternative examination arrangements, your assessment must have been conducted (a) after you reached the age of sixteen years (b) normally within three (for undergraduates) or five (for postgraduates) years of the date that you are due to start your course at Oxford. The tests used must be adult tests, not tests designed for use with children; the assessment should have been carried out by an educational psychologist or by a specialist teacher with a valid practising certificate; and it should have been done on an individual basis and not as part of a group assessment. Diagnostic assessors are asked to review the University's criteria for SpLD assessments on the Disability Advisory Service website to help ensure consistency between reports.
Students continuing direct from undergraduate to postgraduate study will not normally require a new assessment, even if their report is more than five years old. The DAS will review their existing reports to check that they are suitable for the new course and will advise as to whether a further assessment is necessary. Students are not required to contribute towards the cost of diagnostic assessment or top-up reports.
Students who do not have a report which meets these requirements, or who have not been previously diagnosed, will need to attend a diagnostic assessment with either an educational psychologist or a specialist teacher with a valid practising certificate. This can usually take place in Oxford. The assessor's recommendations for alternative examination arrangements will be forwarded to the Proctors by the candidate's College. Such arrangements are normally in the form of extra time for written papers and where necessary the diagnostic assessor may recommend the use of a word-processor in examinations.
It is crucial that support needs and examination arrangements are dealt with as early as possible in a student’s University career. If you have a diagnosis of dyslexia, dyspraxia, or another specific learning difficulty, or if you suspect that you may have such a condition, please consult the DAS or your Senior Tutor as soon as possible. Candidates who might need alternative examination arrangements (e.g. use of a word-processor) must submit a request to the Junior Proctor via their college
- by Friday of 4th Week of Michaelmas Term for all examinations excluding Trinity Term and Long Vacation examinations
- by Friday of 4th Week of Hilary Term for Trinity Term and Long Vacation examinations
The request must be accompanied by the assessor's recommendations (see above).
Taking water and medications into examination rooms
Students are allowed to take a bottle of still water, in a clear spill-proof bottle (i.e. with a valve or sports cap, not screw cap), into their examination rooms. Diabetic students may take in a silent blood-testing kit, a glucose drink and/or glucose tablets and insulin with syringes as long as these items are accompanied by a letter from their college confirming the student requires them. The same is also true for asthmatic students who require an asthma inhaler in the room during examinations. Diabetic and asthmatic students are advised to consult their College Office regarding this letter. No other drink, food, or medications may be taken into examination rooms without the Proctors' permission.
The regulations for some subjects allow candidates to use certain types of calculator in examinations. Details should be confirmed by the Chair of Examiners in each case.
There is a procedure under which the examiners can be informed of any special circumstances (e.g. ill-health) which may have affected a candidate’s performance before or during an examination. Information, usually accompanied by a medical certificate, needs to be sent at the candidate's request in writing by the Senior Tutor (or other responsible college officer), as soon as possible before the papers are marked, to the Proctors who, at their discretion, may forward it to the relevant Chair of Examiners. The examiners will then decide how to take the information into account when determining the examination results. Only in the most exceptional circumstances will the Proctors agree to forward information of this kind after the results of an examination are already known.
Students or those acting on their behalf must not communicate directly with the examiners to notify such special circumstances.
Illness - deferral of examinations
Students who have suffered a prolonged period of illness, or who have been prevented by another urgent cause from carrying out their studies, instead of applying to enter an examination at the required time can make a request for an examination to be deferred. In the case of Final Honour Schools, a candidate who enters the examination up to six terms later than he or she was originally due to be examined can apply through their Senior Tutor for papers to be set in accordance with the original syllabus; otherwise, papers will be set according to the current syllabus. In the case of undergraduates, Finals can normally be taken after a delay of one year without affecting their eligibility for Honours: candidates who defer their examinations for so long that they become ‘over-standing for Honours’ need to seek special permission to be considered for an Honours degree. Details are given in Examination Regulations.
Failing to complete an examination
If a student does not complete the written papers in an examination (e.g. by failing to turn up), he or she will be deemed to have failed the whole examination unless the Proctors are satisfied that there was an urgent cause such as illness (in which case the examiners may be asked to assess the candidate on the basis of the work completed, or in exceptional cases to examine the missed part of the examination on another occasion). In the case of illness, a medical certificate must be submitted to the Proctors’ Office through the Senior Tutor (or other responsible college officer). See also Vivas below.
Withdrawal from examinations
Under some circumstances a student may withdraw from an examination, either before attempting any papers or (subject to the college’s permission) before the written part of the examination is complete, and apply to re-enter on a later occasion. Details are given in Examination Regulations. Such withdrawals must be notified through the Senior Tutor (or other responsible college officer) to the Academic Records Office. A candidate who is deemed to have withdrawn from an examination is considered not to have sat the examination or any part of it: therefore he or she has not failed the examination, but nor are any marks valid (e.g. for essays etc. submitted before written papers) unless permission has been obtained via your College for earlier marks to be carried over.
Many taught courses include provision for students to be examined viva voce (i.e. orally) either as a stated requirement or a requirement that can be invoked at the examiners’ discretion. This is an integral part of the examination process and failure to attend a viva without permission will result in the candidate being failed in the examination as a whole. The dates when candidates may be called for a viva are normally announced by the Examiners at the same time as the final examination timetable. All candidates who may be called for a viva must ensure that they are available in Oxford on these dates. In the case of research students, the viva is usually mandatory: the date will be notified to the candidate direct by the examiners and will be published within the University.
Candidates can access their results information via Student Self-Service (see section 1.4). Once the results have been released by the examiners, candidates will automatically be sent an e-mail. The Academic and Assessment Results page within Student Self-Service details assessment results and the result for the year (if applicable). Marks breakdowns may subsequently be forwarded to colleges by the examinations. Information about the availability of results for particular examinations is available on the examination results website (www.admin.ox.ac.uk/students/exams/results). Please note that, for reasons of confidentiality, staff are not allowed to give out examination results over the telephone.
Each research student will be notified in writing of the outcome of the examination of his or her thesis, after the examiners’ report has been considered by or on behalf of the responsible academic body.
If you fail a University Examination it is important to obtain advice from your subject-tutor or supervisor as soon as possible (for example, to find out whether your college is willing to allow you to come back into residence). This applies to research students taking written qualifying examinations as well as to undergraduates and graduates on taught courses. The detailed provisions concerning any re-sit arrangements for each degree and other qualification are explained in Examination Regulations. In general, an undergraduate student who fails the First Public Examination at the first attempt is permitted under the regulations to enter some form of the examination again normally within a year. A student who fails the Second Public Examination (‘Finals’) is permitted under the regulations to re-enter the Examination; but unless this is done within the maximum number of terms specified for the subject concerned, he or she will not normally be eligible to obtain Honours. Except for a small number of subjects detailed in the regulations, students who have been classified in the Second Public Examination are not allowed to re-take their Finals in order to try to improve their results. Postgraduate students on taught courses are normally allowed to make a second attempt at a failed examination, in accordance with the regulations for the particular degree or other qualification. Research students who are unsuccessful when their theses are examined will be given advice individually via the Divisional Graduate Studies Office about any conditions under which they may revise and re-submit their work.
Students cannot claim exemption from Jury Service. However, if you are summoned for this when you are preparing for or sitting examinations, the Chief Clerk in the Crown Court Office is likely to look sympathetically on a written request for your name to be taken off the list.
A student who has applied to the Proctors for a dispensation from examination regulations or for alternative examination arrangements and who is dissatisfied with the outcome of the application has the right to appeal to the Chair of the University Council’s Education Committee. Such an appeal, which can also be made by the college on the student’s behalf, must be submitted in writing within fourteen days of the Proctors’ decision. Information about these procedures can be obtained from Senior Tutors and college offices.
Dispensation from the regulations
Council's Education Committee has a general power to dispense individual examination candidates from the provisions of the regulations (e.g. to take examinations in different formats, to miss or defer taking written papers, to submit work late, or to have additional re-sit opportunities). Applications must be made via Senior Tutors or other responsible college officers.
If you have a concern about procedures not being correctly followed during an examination, or if you have reason to believe that your examination was not conducted fairly, or that your examiners did not take account of previously notified special circumstances affecting your performance, you should consult urgently the appropriate college officer, usually the Senior Tutor (or your supervisor in the case of research students). Queries and complaints must not be raised directly with the examiners.
You will then be advised how to go about making a formal complaint or academic appeal to the Proctors who, if they consider at first sight that a case exists, will investigate the matter. Complaints relating to taught-course examinations should be made as soon as possible after the papers have been sat (preferably within one month, and not more than three months after your results were announced). Complaints relating to the conduct of examinations for research degrees must be made within three months of notification of results.
Please note that the Proctors will not consider complaints relating to aspects of candidates’ supervision if such complaints are made after submission of the thesis etc. (Concerns about supervision should be discussed at an early stage with the supervisor, college adviser or departmental adviser before possible referral to the Proctors.) The Proctors are not empowered to consider appeals against the academic judgement of the examiners, only complaints about the conduct of examinations.
Note: The Proctors will only authorise the re-checking of marks if at first sight there is evidence of an irregularity having occurred or if some other sufficiently serious justification is in play (most obviously, a candidate’s overall classification being absolutely borderline or one mark being very significantly out of line with the others). Marks will not be checked merely because a candidate is disappointed with them, is puzzled by the distribution, etc. Papers will be re-marked only if investigation by the Proctors has found a serious problem in the original examination process. (For further information about complaints procedures, please see section 13.)
9.4 Advice and Help
If you have any difficulty in interpreting the Examination Regulations, or finding out about subject options, dates, deadlines, etc. ask for advice from your college tutor, your subject tutor, or your supervisor.
Registered students can also find out information online through the Student Gateway (www.ox.ac.uk/students/).
All undergraduate and graduate students must carefully read regulations 3, 4, 5 and 6 in the Proctors’ Disciplinary Regulations for University Examinations below. These make it clear that you must always indicate to the examiners when you have drawn on the work of others; other people’s original ideas and methods should be clearly distinguished from your own, and other people’s words, illustrations, diagrams etc. should be clearly indicated regardless of whether they are copied exactly, paraphrased, or adapted. Failure to acknowledge your sources by clear citation and referencing constitutes plagiarism. The University reserves the right to use software applications to screen any individual’s submitted work for matches either to published sources or to other submitted work. In some examinations, all candidates are asked to submit electronic copies of essays, dissertations etc. for screening by ‘Turnitin’. Any matches might indicate either plagiarism or collusion. Although the use of electronic resources by students in academic work is encouraged, you should remember that the regulations on plagiarism apply to on-line material and other digital material just as much as to printed material.
Guidance about the use of source-materials and the preparation of written work is given in departments’ literature and on their websites, and is explained by tutors and supervisors. If you are unclear about how to take notes or use web-sourced material properly, or what is acceptable practice when writing your essay, project report, thesis, etc., please ask for advice. See also the University's guidance on how to avoid plagiarism (www.ox.ac.uk/students/academic/goodpractice/).
If university examiners believe that material submitted by a candidate may be plagiarised, they will refer the matter to the Proctors. The Proctors will suspend a student’s examination while they fully investigate such cases (this can include interviewing the student). If they consider that a breach of the Disciplinary Regulations has occurred, the Proctors are empowered to refer the matter to the Student Disciplinary Panel. Where plagiarism is proven, it will be dealt with severely: in the most extreme cases, this can result in the student’s career at Oxford being ended by expulsion from the University. (See sections 10 and 11 of this booklet for information about disciplinary procedures.)
9.6 Conduct in Examinations
The Proctors have made the following disciplinary regulations for candidates in University Examinations: it is an offence to breach any of these regulations either intentionally or recklessly, and such breaches are dealt with under the procedures explained in section 11.
1. These regulations are made by the Proctors in the exercise of their powers under section 22 of Statute IX and are designated by Council as disciplinary regulations under section 2 (2) (b) of Statute XI.
2. In these regulations: (1) ‘examination’ includes where the context so permits the submission and assessment of a thesis, dissertation, essay, Transfer of Status materials, Confirmation of Status materials, or other coursework which is not undertaken in formal examination conditions but is a requirement for, counts towards or constitutes the work for a degree or other academic award; and (2) ‘examination room’ means any room designated by the Academic Registrar and Secretary of Faculties (now the Deputy Registrar) or his or her deputy or approved by the Proctors as a place for one or more candidates to take an examination.
3. No candidate shall cheat or act dishonestly, or attempt to do so, in any way, whether before, during or after an examination, so as to obtain or seek to obtain an unfair advantage in an examination.
4. No candidate shall present for an examination as his or her own work any part or the substance of any part of another person’s work.
5. In any written work (whether thesis, dissertation, essay, coursework, or written examinations) passages quoted or closely paraphrased from another person’s work must be identified as quotations or paraphrases, and the source of the quoted or paraphrased material must be clearly acknowledged.
6. Unless specifically permitted by the Special Subject Regulations for the examination concerned, no candidate shall submit to the Examiners any work which he or she has previously submitted partially or in full for examination at this University or elsewhere. Where earlier work by a candidate is citable, he or she shall reference it clearly.
7. No person shall dishonestly give help to a candidate before, during or after an examination so as to give, or attempt to give, that candidate an unfair advantage in an examination.
8. No candidate shall take, or attempt to take, into an examination any unauthorised material (including revision notes), item or device (including a mobile telephone or any other device capable of receiving or communicating information) or equipment relevant to the examination nor use or attempt to use such material, item or device.
9. No candidate shall copy from the script of another candidate or in any other way dishonestly receive help from another person in an examination.
10. Candidates may not communicate with any person other than an invigilator during an examination.
11. No candidate may leave or re-enter an examination room unless permitted by an invigilator.
12. No candidate shall enter an examination room more than thirty minutes after an examination has started except with the permission of the Proctors or an invigilator.
13. No candidate shall unless permitted by the Proctors or an invigilator leave an examination room:
(1) within thirty minutes of the beginning of an examination; or
(2) within thirty minutes of the time at which it is due to end.
14. No candidate may smoke in an examination room or in any building in which an examination is being held, or behave in any other way which distracts or is likely to distract other candidates.
15. Candidates may not use paper in an examination except that which is provided for them.
16. At the end of each examination candidates must hand back to an invigilator all the paper provided for writing their answers, including paper used for rough drafts and paper which has not been used. No paper must be removed from the examination room other than the question-paper for the examination that has just been completed.
17. Unless regulation 18 below applies, all articles or equipment to be used in an examination must be carried into the examination room in a transparent bag.
18. Candidates must offer non-transparent bags for inspection and, unless special permission is given by an invigilator, must deposit them at the place designated for the deposit of bags and other personal belongings.
19. Candidates must present themselves for examinations in full academic dress.
20. Candidates must follow the directions of the invigilators and the Proctors during an examination, including a direction to leave the examination room and the building in which the examination is being held.
The University has the statutory power (rarely used) to deprive somebody of a degree or other qualification after this has been awarded, if it is proven that the degree etc. was obtained unfairly (e.g. a thesis is found to contain plagiarised material or falsified data).
The Proctors have also made the following administrative regulations concerning conduct in examinations:
1. These regulations shall apply to all university examinations, including any examination described in any regulation as a qualifying examination.
2. In these regulations ‘college’ means any college, society, or Permanent Private Hall or any other institution designated by Council by regulation as being permitted to present candidates for matriculation.
3. It is the responsibility of each candidate to ensure that he or she hands in all the material that he or she wishes to be considered by the examiners and to comply with regulations relating to the submission of written work such as dissertations, essays and project reports. Once a candidate has submitted a piece of work, he or she may not withdraw that piece of work and substitute a revised version in the same examination without the Proctors’ consent.
4. During every written paper, each candidate shall display his or her University Card face up on the desk at which he or she is writing.
5. A candidate who is taken ill while sitting a written paper may (with an invigilator’s permission) leave the room and return while the examination is in progress, to resume the paper on one occasion only (and no extra time shall be allowed). If the candidate is unable to complete the paper concerned because he or she has been taken ill a second time, he or she should inform the invigilator so that the incomplete script can be handed in. It is the candidate’s responsibility to obtain a medical certificate, in accordance with the relevant provisions of the General Regulations for the Conduct of University Examinations, explaining how his or her performance in the paper concerned may have been affected by illness.
6. A candidate may not withdraw from an examination after the written part of the examination is complete. The point of completion shall be deemed to be the conclusion of the last paper for which the candidate has entered, or the time by which a dissertation or other written material is due to be submitted, whichever is the later.
7. Concerns about the conduct of an examination must not be raised directly with Examiners. A candidate on a taught course may communicate with Examiners about such matters only through the Senior Tutor or equivalent officer of his or her college. If such a candidate wishes to raise a query or make a complaint about the conduct of his or her examination, such query or complaint must be notified to the Senior Tutor or equivalent officer of his or her college not later than three months after the notification of the results of the examination concerned (when the matter will be dealt with in accordance with the Council Regulations governing the handling of complaints submitted to the Proctors). A candidate for a research degree or higher doctorate may communicate a query or complaint about the conduct of his or her examination direct to the Proctors: this must be done not later than three months after the notification of the results of the examination concerned (in accordance with the procedures set out in the Council Regulations governing the handling of complaints submitted to the Proctors).